How To Care For A Pigeon – Caring for a pigeon can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience, whether you’ve rescued an injured bird, are keeping one as a pet, or simply want to ensure the well-being of these feathered neighbors in your environment. Pigeons, with their gentle nature and adaptability, have found a place in the hearts of many around the world. However, providing proper care for these birds requires understanding their unique needs and the responsibilities that come with it.

Pigeons are highly adaptable and have thrived in various environments, from bustling cities to rural landscapes. While they can often fend for themselves, there are circumstances where human intervention becomes necessary, such as when pigeons are injured, ill, or in need of shelter. In such cases, knowing how to care for a pigeon is essential for their survival and recovery.

This comprehensive guide will explore the various aspects of pigeon care, from creating a suitable habitat and providing a nutritious diet to addressing health concerns and fostering a bond with your avian companion. Whether you’re a pigeon enthusiast, a rescuer, or simply someone who wants to promote the well-being of these charming birds, understanding how to care for a pigeon is a meaningful endeavor that can lead to a harmonious coexistence with these urban avian neighbors.

how to care for a pigeon

How do you take care of a pigeon?

Proper hygiene maintenance is a crucial part of good bird keeping. A daily clean of the cage or loft, a fresh floor covering of straw or wood shavings, plus new, clean water twice daily and a daily supply of fresh food is essential. Remember to keep the feed and water containers clean too, sterilising them regularly.

Taking care of a pigeon can be a rewarding experience, whether you have a pet pigeon or you’re providing for a wild injured pigeon. Here are some essential guidelines for taking care of pigeons:

Provide Shelter and Safety:

If you have a pet pigeon, ensure you have a suitable cage or aviary with enough space for the pigeon to move around comfortably. For wild pigeons, consider creating a safe environment for them to heal if they are injured or sick.

Protect them from predators and extreme weather conditions.


Pigeons are granivorous birds, so their diet primarily consists of grains like wheat, barley, and corn. You can also feed them pigeon feed or specially formulated bird feed.

Freshwater should always be available. Ensure the water container is clean and changed regularly.


Keep the pigeon’s living area clean by removing droppings and providing fresh bedding material.

Clean the food and water containers regularly to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.

Social Interaction:

If you have a pet pigeon, spend time with it daily. Pigeons are social birds and can form strong bonds with their caregivers.

If caring for a wild pigeon, minimize interaction to reduce stress. Only handle them when necessary, such as for medical treatment.


Regularly inspect your pigeon for signs of illness or injury, such as changes in behavior, discolored feathers, or difficulty breathing. Consult a veterinarian experienced with birds if you notice any issues.

Wild pigeons should be taken to a wildlife rehabilitation center if they are injured or sick.


Pigeons are generally good at grooming themselves. However, you may need to trim their nails if they become too long, or consult a veterinarian for help.

Environmental Enrichment:

Provide perches, branches, or other items for your pet pigeon to perch on and play with.

For wild pigeons in captivity, offer branches, a shallow dish for bathing, and access to natural sunlight whenever possible.

Legal Considerations:

Ensure you comply with local and national laws regarding the ownership and care of pigeons. Some areas may require permits for keeping pigeons.

Breeding (for pet pigeons):

If you plan to breed pigeons, make sure you have proper knowledge and resources to care for the offspring.

Release (for rehabilitated wild pigeons):

If you’ve cared for a wild pigeon and it has recovered, consult with local wildlife authorities on the proper procedure for releasing it back into the wild.

Pigeon care can vary depending on whether you have a pet pigeon or are caring for a wild one. Always prioritize the welfare and health of the bird, and seek professional advice when needed, especially for wild pigeons or complex health issues.

Is it hard to take care of a pigeon?

Pigeons are smart, easy going birds that quickly learn household routines. They do fine in homes with other pets and can live peacefully and unafraid with dogs and cats as long as they are kept safe. Pigeons are very emotional and do need a BFF, whether another bird or a human with whom they can spend the day.

Taking care of a pigeon, whether it’s a pet or a wild pigeon in need of care, can vary in difficulty depending on your experience, resources, and the specific circumstances. In general, providing basic care for a pigeon is not excessively challenging, but it does require commitment, attention to detail, and some knowledge of their needs.

For pet pigeons, the level of difficulty is relatively moderate. You’ll need to ensure they have a clean and safe living environment, access to suitable food and water, and regular social interaction. Maintaining cleanliness and monitoring their health are key responsibilities. Pigeons are social animals, so bonding with them can be rewarding but does require time and effort.

Caring for a wild pigeon, especially if it’s injured or sick, can be more demanding. You’ll need to provide appropriate medical attention or take it to a wildlife rehabilitation center if necessary. It’s important to respect their wild nature and minimize contact to reduce stress. Additionally, understanding local wildlife regulations is crucial when dealing with wild pigeons.

While basic pigeon care is manageable for most people, the difficulty level can increase significantly when dealing with wild pigeons or complex medical issues. Proper research, preparation, and a willingness to meet their needs are essential for successful pigeon care.

Can you keep a single pigeon?

Pigeons do great indoors as family pets. They can also live outside in a predator & rodent-proof aviary but I would never make a single pigeon live outside alone. They are flock birds and to be outside alone is stressful and lonesome for a pigeon. A single pigeon living indoors adopts the people as flock members.

Keeping a single pigeon as a pet is generally not recommended. Pigeons are highly social birds that thrive on companionship and interaction with their own kind. They are known for forming strong bonds with their flock or mates. Keeping a single pigeon in isolation can lead to loneliness, stress, and behavioral issues, ultimately impacting the bird’s well-being.

Pigeons are happiest when they have the company of other pigeons. If you’re interested in keeping pigeons as pets, it’s advisable to have at least a pair or a small group to provide the social interaction they need. This can help mimic their natural flock dynamics and ensure they lead a fulfilling and contented life.

There may be legal requirements or restrictions regarding the ownership of pigeons, so it’s important to check with local authorities or organizations that oversee bird keeping before acquiring any pigeons. Always prioritize the welfare and social needs of your pigeons to ensure they have a happy and healthy life in captivity.

Do pigeons like to be petted?

Pigeons are also loyal, loving companions who can express affection just as well as any other pet. Those who have been raised properly are quick to bond with knowledgeable owners. Pigeons often enjoy being taken out of their enclosure and being held and petted, or riding on a favorite human’s shoulder or head.

Pigeons, in general, do not typically enjoy being petted in the same way that dogs or cats do. Pigeons are not domesticated animals in the same sense, and their behavior and preferences are more attuned to their wild instincts. They may perceive human hands as a potential threat or source of stress, especially if they have not been socialized from a young age.

Some individual pigeons may tolerate gentle handling or petting to varying degrees, depending on their personality and past experiences with humans. If you have a pet pigeon and wish to interact with it, it’s essential to approach them calmly and slowly. Offer treats or food to establish trust, and if the pigeon seems comfortable, you can try gently stroking their feathers. Always be mindful of their body language; if they show signs of discomfort (such as cooing or flapping wings), it’s best to respect their boundaries and give them space.

It’s crucial to remember that pigeons have unique preferences, and not all of them will enjoy being petted. It’s essential to prioritize their comfort and well-being, and if they don’t seem receptive to physical contact, find other ways to bond with them, such as providing food, shelter, and companionship.

How To Care For A Pigeon

What type of shelter or cage is suitable for housing a pet pigeon?

Choosing the right shelter or cage for your pet pigeon is crucial to ensure their comfort and well-being. Here are some guidelines for selecting an appropriate housing setup:

Cage Size: Pigeons need ample space to move around and stretch their wings. The cage should be large enough to allow your pigeon to fully extend its wings without touching the sides of the enclosure. A minimum cage size for a single pigeon is typically around 2 feet by 2 feet by 2 feet, but larger is always better.

Material: Opt for a cage made of safe and durable materials. Stainless steel cages are often recommended because they are easy to clean, resistant to rust, and non-toxic. Make sure the cage has no sharp edges or parts that could potentially harm your pigeon.

Bar Spacing: The spacing between the bars should be suitable for pigeons, typically around half an inch to prevent them from getting stuck or escaping. Make sure the bars are sturdy enough to withstand their beaks and prevent bending.

Perches: Pigeons enjoy perching, so provide horizontal perches within the cage. Wooden perches of varying diameters are ideal as they help maintain your pigeon’s foot health and provide different resting spots.

Nesting Area: If you plan to breed pigeons, ensure the cage has a designated nesting area. Nesting boxes or enclosed sections can be added for this purpose.

Cleanliness: Regularly clean the cage to maintain a hygienic environment. Remove droppings, uneaten food, and replace soiled bedding to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.

Safety: Ensure the cage is located in a safe area, away from drafts, direct sunlight, and extreme temperatures. Protect the cage from potential predators or other pets that might harm your pigeon.

Environmental Enrichment: Pigeons are intelligent birds that benefit from mental stimulation. Include toys, mirrors, and branches for perching to keep them engaged and prevent boredom.

Social Interaction: Pigeons are social birds and thrive on companionship. Consider having at least two pigeons if possible, as they can form strong bonds with each other. If keeping a single pigeon, provide ample human interaction to prevent loneliness.

The well-being of your pet pigeon should always be a top priority. Providing a safe, clean, and appropriately sized cage with environmental enrichment will help ensure your pigeon leads a healthy and happy life in captivity.

What should be included in a pigeon’s diet to ensure proper nutrition and health?

A balanced and nutritious diet is essential for the proper health and well-being of a pigeon. Pigeons are granivorous birds, meaning their primary diet consists of grains and seeds. Here’s what should be included in a pigeon’s diet to ensure they receive the necessary nutrition:

Pigeon Feed Mix: Commercially available pigeon feed or dove mix is a convenient option as it’s formulated to meet their nutritional needs. Look for a mix that contains a variety of seeds like millet, sunflower seeds, cracked corn, and wheat. Ensure it’s fresh and free from contaminants.

Fresh Water: Access to clean, fresh water is critical. Make sure your pigeon always has a supply of water in a clean container. Change the water daily to prevent contamination.

Supplements: Provide grit or crushed oyster shells to aid in digestion. Grit helps pigeons grind down the seeds in their gizzard since they don’t have teeth to chew.

Fruits and Vegetables: While seeds should form the bulk of their diet, pigeons can benefit from occasional fruits and vegetables. Offer items like leafy greens, peas, corn, and small pieces of fruits like apples or grapes as treats. These provide essential vitamins and minerals.

Pellets: Some pigeon owners also incorporate pigeon pellets into their diet. These pellets are specially formulated to provide balanced nutrition, but they should not replace the main seed mix.

Variety: Introduce variety in their diet to mimic their natural foraging behavior. This can help keep them mentally stimulated and engaged with their food.

Avoid Harmful Foods: Never feed pigeons foods that are toxic to them, such as chocolate, caffeine, avocado, and alcohol. These can be extremely harmful or fatal.

Feeding Routine: Establish a regular feeding schedule to help your pigeon anticipate meal times. Providing consistent meals can promote good eating habits and health.

It’s important to monitor your pigeon’s weight and overall health to ensure they are thriving. Overfeeding can lead to obesity, so it’s crucial to strike a balance between providing enough food for their energy needs and preventing excessive weight gain. If you have concerns about your pigeon’s diet or health, consult with an avian veterinarian for professional guidance.

How often should a pigeon’s living space be cleaned and maintained?

Maintaining a clean living space for your pigeon is essential to ensure their health and well-being. Pigeon cages or aviaries should be regularly cleaned to prevent the buildup of dirt, waste, and harmful bacteria. Here’s a general guideline for how often a pigeon’s living space should be cleaned and maintained:

Daily Cleaning:

Remove uneaten food to prevent spoilage and contamination.

Change the water in their container daily to ensure it’s fresh and clean.

Remove any droppings from perches and the cage floor.

Weekly Cleaning:

Replace all bedding material or substrate once a week. This helps control odors and maintain cleanliness.

Scrub and disinfect food and water containers thoroughly to prevent the growth of bacteria.

Wipe down cage bars and surfaces to remove any accumulated dust or dirt.

Check for any damaged or soiled toys, perches, or accessories and replace as needed.

Monthly Cleaning:

Conduct a more thorough cleaning of the entire cage or aviary. Remove your pigeon(s) temporarily if necessary.

Scrub and disinfect all cage surfaces, including bars, perches, and nesting areas.

Inspect the cage for signs of wear or damage and make any necessary repairs.

Clean and sanitize any environmental enrichment items, like toys or mirrors.

Seasonal Cleaning:

Depending on your climate and living conditions, consider a more thorough deep cleaning of the entire living space once a season. This might include pressure washing or using a mild disinfectant to sanitize surfaces.

Regular cleaning not only keeps the living environment hygienic but also helps you monitor your pigeon’s health. Any changes in droppings, unusual odors, or signs of illness can be noticed during cleaning routines, allowing you to address potential health issues promptly. Always use bird-safe cleaning products and ensure the cage is thoroughly dry before returning your pigeon(s) to their living space.

How To Care For A Pigeon

Are there any specific health concerns or common illnesses to watch out for in pigeons?

Yes, pigeons, like all birds, can be susceptible to various health concerns and illnesses. Here are some common health issues and specific concerns to watch out for in pigeons:

Respiratory Infections: Pigeons are prone to respiratory infections, especially when kept in crowded or poorly ventilated conditions. Signs of respiratory issues include labored breathing, nasal discharge, coughing, or sneezing. These can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or environmental factors, so it’s crucial to maintain good hygiene and proper ventilation.

Parasites: Pigeons can suffer from external parasites like mites and ticks, as well as internal parasites such as worms. Regularly inspect your pigeons for signs of itching, feather loss, or weight loss, which could indicate a parasitic infestation. Consult a veterinarian for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Pigeon Paramyxovirus (PPMV): This highly contagious viral disease can cause a range of symptoms in pigeons, including respiratory distress, green or yellowish diarrhea, and neurological signs like twisting of the neck. PPMV can be fatal, and there is no specific treatment, so vaccination and strict quarantine measures are essential for prevention.

Canker (Trichomoniasis): Canker is a protozoan infection that affects the throat and mouth of pigeons. It can cause difficulty swallowing, regurgitation, and weight loss. Treatment typically involves medications prescribed by a veterinarian.

Pigeon Pox: Pigeon pox is a viral disease characterized by wart-like growths on the skin, beak, or inside the mouth. Infected pigeons may become lethargic and have difficulty eating. There is no specific treatment, but supportive care can help affected birds recover.

Injuries: Pigeons can injure themselves by colliding with objects, getting caught in fences, or being attacked by predators. Inspect your pigeons regularly for injuries, and provide immediate medical attention if needed.

Lead Poisoning: Pigeons are at risk of lead poisoning, primarily from ingesting lead-based objects such as paint chips or lead-contaminated water. Symptoms include weakness, loss of appetite, and neurological signs. If you suspect lead poisoning, seek immediate veterinary care.

Nutritional Deficiencies: Poor diet can lead to nutritional deficiencies, affecting your pigeon’s overall health. Common deficiencies include calcium and vitamin D, which can result in weakened bones and eggshell issues. Ensure a balanced diet and access to sunlight or appropriate supplements.

Stress-Related Conditions: Stress can compromise a pigeon’s immune system, making them more susceptible to illness. Factors such as overcrowding, poor environmental conditions, or frequent disturbances can lead to stress-related health problems.

Regular health check-ups by an avian veterinarian, along with proper hygiene, nutrition, and a stress-free environment, are essential for preventing and addressing these health concerns in pigeons. Early detection and prompt treatment are key to maintaining the well-being of your feathered friends.


Caring for a pigeon is an endeavor that bridges the gap between human and nature, fostering a unique connection with these adaptable and resilient birds. Whether you’ve taken in a wounded pigeon, provided shelter for a lost one, or chosen to keep one as a pet, the responsibility of pigeon care comes with its own set of rewards and challenges.

Throughout this guide, we’ve explored the essential aspects of pigeon care, from creating a safe and comfortable habitat to ensuring a well-balanced diet and addressing potential health concerns. We’ve delved into the intricacies of providing injured or orphaned pigeons with the care and attention they need for recovery and survival.

How To Care For A Pigeon

Caring for pigeons extends beyond meeting their physical needs; it encompasses creating an environment where they can exhibit natural behaviors, fostering a sense of trust and companionship, and contributing to their overall well-being. In return, pigeons offer us a unique opportunity to connect with the avian world, allowing us to appreciate their grace and beauty up close.

Whether pigeons are a part of your urban landscape or a beloved presence in your home, responsible pigeon care enriches our lives and contributes to the welfare of these remarkable birds. As we provide them with the care they require, we become stewards of nature in our own right, championing the coexistence of pigeons and humans in our shared environment.